For purposes of dependability evaluation, how many 2 moment periods coded for every adjustable linked to intimate minorities had been summed over the periods in a episode to measure the regularity with which exact same intercourse intimate behavior and speak about nonheterosexual intimate dilemmas took place within each program episode. This summing triggered converting nominal data (i.e., presence/absence) during the 2 moment interval level into regularity counts during the system degree (wide range of periods by which sex that is same behavior happened in the episode). Consequently, the dependability analyses utilized the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). The ICC is an assessment associated with percentage of variance when you look at the measures owing to coder agreement corrected for opportunity. For period information like the regularity counts utilized right here, the ICC is the same as Krippendorf’s alpha (Krippendorf, 1980).
An ICC of .70 had been utilized whilst the criterion for appropriate dependability. Both things utilized to measure the existence of nonheterosexual themes significantly surpassed this criterion. The ICC for exact same intercourse intimate behavior had been .97 in 12 months 1 and .99 in 12 months 2. The ICC for mention nonheterosexual intimate problems had been .89 in 12 months 1 and .95 in 12 months 2.
To respond to the very first pair of research concerns concerning the prevalence of nonheterosexual product on tv, we utilized episode degree data ( ag e.g., percentages of episodes containing sex that is same behavior and containing speak about sex linked to nonheterosexuals) and chi square analyses https://chaturbatewebcams.com/males/gay/ to look at between team distinctions by using these nominal information. When it comes to 2nd group of research concerns, we utilized just those reveals that included nonheterosexual intimate content and evaluated their regularity across 2 minute periods ( ag e.g., range periods each hour of system time with nonheterosexual intimate talk). Of these analyses, we used t tests or analysis of variance (ANOVA) to try group distinctions. Significant omnibus F tests had been followed up with post hoc comparisons making use of Tamhane’s T2 test, which will not assume equal mobile size or equal variance, to recognize significant differences across teams.
Results.Prevalence of Nonheterosexual Sexual Content
About one in six programs within our examples included any content that is sexualbehavior or talk) pertaining to nonheterosexuals. The small escalation in nonheterosexual intimate content through the 2001 2002 period (14.5%) to your 2002 2003 period (17.4%) had been significant, П‡ 2 (1, N = 2715) = 4.15, p dining dining Table 1 shows the portion of reveals that contained any exact exact same sex intimate behavior and any intimate talk associated with nonheterosexuals by system genres, by style of community, and also by time of day aired. The 11 stations were classified into one of three categories: commercial broadcast (which included the three major networks ABC, CBS, and NBC as well as Fox, UPN, and WB), cable music entertainment (which included BET and MTV), and premium cable movie (which included Cinemax, HBO, and Showtime) for network type. With regards to time of time broadcast, shows airing between 3:00 and 8:00 p.m. were categorized as late evening that is afternoon/early those shown between 8:00 and 11:00 p.m. were classified as prime time.
Note: Within style of community and period of day aired, percentages when you look at the column that is same don’t share subscripts vary at p dining Table 1 ). Generally in most situations, there is a top level of correspondence between a genre’s general ranks for same intercourse intimate behavior and speak about nonheterosexual intimate problems. Also, genres’ standings on both these factors were fairly stable over the two tv periods.
Three genres had been consistently reduced in both kinds of nonheterosexual sexual content: Children’s cartoons (none of which included sexual behavior or intimate talk pertaining to nonheterosexuals in either 12 months), news publications (0% for behavior and talk in 12 months 1; 3.2per cent and 6.5%, correspondingly, for behavior and talk in 12 months 2), and talk programs (0 and 3.0percent, correspondingly, for behavior and talk in 12 months 1; 2.2 and 8.9per cent, correspondingly, for behavior and talk for 12 months 2). 3 Genres that tended to have the best proportions of programs with nonheterosexual content had been variety/comedy and component movie. Created for TV films and programs classified as вЂњotherвЂќ additionally had fairly high proportions with nonheterosexual content that is sexual but, both these groups included just a small amount of programs (letter = 7), rendering it hard to draw conclusions about them. Consequently, although we include these second two genres when you look at the tables, we usually do not emphasize the findings connected with them.