To respond to the very first pair of research concerns in connection with prevalence of nonheterosexual product on tv, we utilized episode degree information ( e.g., percentages of episodes containing sex that is same behavior and containing speak about intercourse pertaining to nonheterosexuals) and chi square analyses to look at between group distinctions with one of these nominal information. For the second pair of research questions, we utilized only those suggests that included nonheterosexual intimate content and evaluated their regularity across 2 moment intervals ( e.g., range periods each hour of system time with nonheterosexual intimate talk). Of these analyses, we used t tests or analysis of variance (ANOVA) to try team differences. Significant omnibus F tests had been followed up with post hoc comparisons utilizing Tamhane’s T2 test, which will not assume equal cellular size or equal variance, to spot significant distinctions across teams.
Results.Prevalence of Nonheterosexual Sexual Content
About one in six programs within our examples included any sexual content (behavior or talk) associated with nonheterosexuals. The increase that is slight nonheterosexual intimate content through the 2001 2002 period (14.5%) to your 2002 2003 period (17.4%) had been significant, П‡ 2 (1, N = 2715) = 4.15, p dining dining dining Table 1 shows the portion of implies that contained any exact same intercourse intimate behavior and any intimate talk linked to nonheterosexuals by system genres, by variety of community, and also by period of day aired. The 11 stations were classified into one of three categories: commercial broadcast (which included the three major networks ABC, CBS, and NBC as well as Fox, UPN, and WB), cable music entertainment (which included BET and MTV), and premium cable movie (which included Cinemax, HBO, and Showtime) for network type. With regards to period of time broadcast, shows airing between 3:00 and 8:00 p.m. had been categorized as late afternoon/early night and those shown between 8:00 and 11:00 p.m. were classified as prime time.
Portion of Episodes with Same Intercourse intimate actions and talk that is sexual to Nonheterosexuals
Note: Within types of system and time of day aired, percentages within the column that is same don’t share subscripts vary at p dining dining Table 1 ). More often than not, there clearly was a high amount of communication between a genre’s general positions for exact same intercourse behavior that is sexual mention nonheterosexual intimate issues. Furthermore, genres’ standings on both these factors had been fairly stable over the two tv periods.
Three genres had been regularly lower in both types of nonheterosexual sexual content: Children’s cartoons (none of which included sexual behavior or intimate talk associated with nonheterosexuals in a choice of year), news mags (0% for behavior and talk in 12 months 1; 3.2per cent and 6.5%, correspondingly, for behavior and talk in 12 months 2), and talk programs (0 and 3.0per cent, correspondingly, for behavior and talk in 12 months 1; 2.2 and 8.9percent, correspondingly, for behavior and talk for 12 months 2). 3 Genres that had a tendency to have the greatest proportions of programs with nonheterosexual content had been variety/comedy and component movie. Designed for television films and programs classified as вЂњotherвЂќ additionally had reasonably high proportions with nonheterosexual content that is sexual nevertheless, both these categories included just only a few programs (letter = 7), rendering it tough to draw conclusions about them. Consequently, we do not highlight the findings associated with them although we include these latter two genres in the tables.
System kind evaluations
Across community types, we discovered comparable habits generally speaking in nonheterosexual intimate content between the 2 tv seasons, with regularly reduced percentages of programs on commercial broadcast companies containing exact same intercourse intimate behavior and intimate talk pertaining to nonheterosexuals in addition to greatest percentages of shows with both kinds of content on premium cable movie companies. The common amount of periods containing sex that is same behavior had been 3.7 in 12 months 1 and dropped to 3.0 in year 2. This huge difference, nevertheless, had not been statistically significant (p = .23). Likewise a t test of this 331 episodes from 12 months 1 and 12 months 2 that included non heterosexual intimate talk suggested that the distinction when you look at the regularity of these content between the two tv periods (4.2 periods in 12 months 1 and 4.9 periods for 12 months 2) had not been significant (p = .18).
Level of exact Same Intercourse Sexual Behavior and Talk associated with Nonhetrosexuals each hour of system Time
Note: Within variety of community and period of day aired, means into the same line that don’t share subscripts vary at p 1 For simplicity of presentation, we make use of the term вЂњnonheterosexualвЂќ to mention collectively to all or any people whose intimate orientation isn’t solely heterosexual, including gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals of either intercourse.
2 one other intimate behavior category had been utilized to fully capture all the forms of intimate tasks that would not fall under the categories specified flirting, kissing, intimate touching, sexual activity implied, and sexual activity depicted including low degree intimate functions such as for instance leering to advanced level intimate functions such as for instance masturbation and bondage and control.
3 Because our system test had been gathered between 3:00 p.m. and 11:00 p.m., some talk programs, such as for instance Jerry Springer, that may deal more often with intimate themes are not included since they were broadcast earlier. The 12 talk programs inside our test included those broadcast into the afternoon and night such as for instance Oprah, Rosie O’Donnell, Ricki Lake, one other Half, and BET Tonight along with governmental talk programs (age.g., Face the Nation, McLaughlin Group, The Chris Matthews Show).
4 Because our examples consist of programs from both broadcast that is commercial cable sites, we utilized a regular device quantity of 2 moment periods each hour of system time instead of amount of 2 minute intervals per one hour show to evaluate the frequency of intimate behavior and discuss sex regarding nonheterosexuals. This makes up the undeniable fact that commercials reduce the amount substantially of system content on broadcast networks to about 22 two moment intervals in a single hour system, whereas 60 minutes cable programs typically have actually about 30 two moment intervals.
Deborah A. Fisher, Research Scientist at Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation. Douglas L. Hill, Associate Research Scientist at Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation. Joel W. Grube, Director and a Senior Research Scientist in the Prevention analysis Center, Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation. Enid L. Gruber, Assistant Professor into the Department of Child and Adolescent Studies at California State University, Fullerton.